Ancient Egypt - The Second Intermediate Period

Updated: Nov 10, 2020

The 13th and 14th Dynasties

The transition to the 13th Dynasty seems to have been a smooth one, as they continued to rule from an area just south of Memphis. This dynasty is considered a lost dynasty. We have the names of ten kings who are listed for the dynasty that lasted about 70 years, but little else, other than a few small pyramids at Dahshur and four small pyramids at Saqqara. This 13th Dynasty held control over both Upper and Lower Egypt until about the end of the dynasty when the Eastern Delta in Lower Egypt broke away. They did so under their own petty kings and established the obscure 14th Dynasty, made up of a local Canaanite population. They would rule the Eastern Delta for 57 years.

Now the Delta gets its name from the Greeks when they came into Egypt from the north, traveling across the Mediterranean, and saw this marshy land that was shaped like a triangle. The triangle is the Greek letter Delta... so they called it the Delta. There is very little tangible record from this Delta Dynasty because the area is so moist. There is water everywhere and it is very difficult to excavate. Picture trying to dig in the swamp, it is almost impossible. Whole temples have entirely sunk underwater. As a result, the 14th Dynasty is also considered a lost dynasty.