Ancient Egypt - The 27th Dynasty

The Battle of Pelusium was the first major battle between the Persian Empire and Egypt. Herodotus writes a detailed account of these events. Although entertaining, he provides little fact, and hardly any information about the actual battle. What is known, is that the inexperienced king, Psammetichus III, was defeated by Cambyses II of Persia. Psammetichus III fled to Memphis, but was captured, transported to Susa (the Persian capital) and executed. He would be the first Egyptian king to be captured and removed by a foreign power.

From Egypt, Cambyses II attempted the conquest of Kush, but his army was not able to cross the deserts and after heavy losses, was forced to return. Cambyses II would become the first Pharaoh of the 27th Dynasty. Unlike the stories of Herodotus and the later Egyptian priests, Cambyses II respected and even participated in the Egyptian religious practices. He did not stay long in Egypt, however, and departed after leaving a satrap in control.