With Mentuhotep II, the country is again united. The First Intermediate Period ends and the Middle Kingdom begins. After unifying the country, Mentuhotep II spent the rest of his long life returning peace and prosperity to Egypt, which they had not experienced in over 200 years.
The Mortuary Temple of Mentuhotep II
South of his predecessors' saff tombs, Mentuhotep constructed a large Mortuary Temple on the impressive Great Bay of Cliffs at Deir el-Bahari. The choice of this location was certainly related to the Theban origin of the 11th Dynasty: Mentuhotep's predecessors on the Theban throne were all buried close-by in saff tombs. Furthermore, Mentuhotep may have chosen Deir el-Bahri because it was aligned with the temple of Karnak, on the other side of Nile. In particular, the statue of Amun was brought annually to Deir el-Bahri during the Beautiful Festival of the Valley, something which the king may have perceived as beneficial to this funerary cult.